The Wages of Science

In the United States, Congress approved, last month, increases in the 2003 budgets of both the National Institutes of Health and National Science Foundation. America is not alone in – vainly – trying to compensate for imploding capital markets and risk-averse financiers.

In 1999, chancellor Gordon Brown inaugurated a $1.6 billion program of “upgrading British science” and commercializing its products. This was on top of $1 billion invested between 1998-2002. The budgets of the Medical Research Council and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council were quadrupled overnight.

The University Challenge Fund was set to provide $100 million in seed money to cover costs related to the hiring of managerial skills, securing intellectual property, constructing a prototype or preparing a business plan. Another $30 million went to start-up funding of high-tech, high-risk companies in the UK.

According to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the top 29 industrialized nations invest in R&D more than $600 billion a year. The bulk of this capital is provided by the private sector. In the United Kingdom, for instance, government funds are dwarfed by private financing, according to the British Venture Capital Association. More than $80 billion have been ploughed into 23,000 companies since 1983, about half of them in the hi-tech sector. Three million people are employed in these firms. Investments surged by 36 percent in 2001 to $18 billion.

But this British exuberance is a global exception.

Even the – white hot – life sciences field suffered an 11 percent drop in venture capital investments last year, reports the MoneyTree Survey. According to the Ernst & Young 2002 Alberta Technology Report released on Wednesday, the Canadian hi-tech sector is languishing with less than $3 billion invested in 2002 in seed capital – this despite generous matching funds and tax credits proffered by many of the provinces as well as the federal government.

In Israel, venture capital plunged to $600 million last year – one fifth its level in 2000. Aware of this cataclysmic reversal in investor sentiment, the Israeli government set up 24 hi-tech incubators. But these are able merely to partly cater to the pecuniary needs of less than 20 percent of the projects submitted.

As governments pick up the monumental slack created by the withdrawal of private funding, they attempt to rationalize and economize.

The New Jersey Commission of Health Science Education and Training recently proposed to merge the state’s three public research universities. Soaring federal and state budget deficits are likely to exert added pressure on the already strained relationship between academe and state – especially with regards to research priorities and the allocation of ever-scarcer resources.

This friction is inevitable because the interaction between technology and science is complex and ill-understood. Some technological advances spawn new scientific fields – the steel industry gave birth to metallurgy, computers to computer science and the transistor to solid state physics. The discoveries of science also lead, though usually circuitously, to technological breakthroughs – consider the examples of semiconductors and biotechnology.

Thus, it is safe to generalize and say that the technology sector is only the more visible and alluring tip of the drabber iceberg of research and development. The military, universities, institutes and industry all over the world plough hundreds of billions annually into both basic and applied studies. But governments are the most important sponsors of pure scientific pursuits by a long shot.

Science is widely perceived as a public good – its benefits are shared. Rational individuals would do well to sit back and copy the outcomes of research – rather than produce widely replicated discoveries themselves. The government has to step in to provide them with incentives to innovate.

Thus, in the minds of most laymen and many economists, science is associated exclusively with publicly-funded universities and the defense establishment. Inventions such as the jet aircraft and the Internet are often touted as examples of the civilian benefits of publicly funded military research. The pharmaceutical, biomedical, information technology and space industries, for instance – though largely private – rely heavily on the fruits of nonrivalrous (i.e. public domain) science sponsored by the state.

The majority of 501 corporations surveyed by the Department of Finance and Revenue Canada in 1995-6 reported that government funding improved their internal cash flow – an important consideration in the decision to undertake research and development. Most beneficiaries claimed the tax incentives for seven years and recorded employment growth.

In the absence of efficient capital markets and adventuresome capitalists, some developing countries have taken this propensity to extremes. In the Philippines, close to 100 percent of all R&D is government-financed. The meltdown of foreign direct investment flows – they declined by nearly three fifths since 2000 – only rendered state involvement more indispensable.

But this is not a universal trend. South Korea, for instance, effected a successful transition to private venture capital which now – even after the Asian turmoil of 1997 and the global downturn of 2001 – amounts to four fifths of all spending on R&D.

Thus, supporting ubiquitous government entanglement in science is overdoing it. Most applied R&D is still conducted by privately owned industrial outfits. Even “pure” science – unadulterated by greed and commerce – is sometimes bankrolled by private endowments and foundations.

Moreover, the conduits of government involvement in research, the universities, are only weakly correlated with growing prosperity. As Alison Wolf, professor of education at the University of London elucidates in her seminal tome “Does Education Matter? Myths about Education and Economic Growth”, published last year, extra years of schooling and wider access to university do not necessarily translate to enhanced growth (though technological innovation clearly does).

Terence Kealey, a clinical biochemist, vice-chancellor of the University of Buckingham in England and author of “The Economic Laws of Scientific Research”, is one of a growing band of scholars who dispute the intuitive linkage between state-propped science and economic progress. In an interview published last week by Scientific American, he recounted how he discovered that:

“Of all the lead industrial countries, Japan – the country investing least in science – was growing fastest. Japanese science grew spectacularly under laissez-faire. Its science was actually purer than that of the U.K. or the U.S. The countries with the next least investment were France and Germany, and were growing next fastest. And the countries with the maximum investment were the U.S., Canada and U.K., all of which were doing very badly at the time.”

The Economist concurs: “it is hard for governments to pick winners in technology.” Innovation and science sprout in – or migrate to – locations with tough laws regarding intellectual property rights, a functioning financial system, a culture of “thinking outside the box” and a tradition of excellence.

Government can only remove obstacles – especially red tape and trade tariffs – and nudge things in the right direction by investing in infrastructure and institutions. Tax incentives are essential initially. But if the authorities meddle, they are bound to ruin science and be rued by scientists.

Still, all forms of science funding – both public and private – are lacking.

State largesse is ideologically constrained, oft-misallocated, inefficient and erratic. In the United States, mega projects, such as the Superconducting Super Collider, with billions already sunk in, have been abruptly discontinued as were numerous other defense-related schemes. Additionally, some knowledge gleaned in government-funded research is barred from the public domain.

But industrial money can be worse. It comes with strings attached. The commercially detrimental results of drug studies have been suppressed by corporate donors on more than one occasion, for instance. Commercial entities are unlikely to support basic research as a public good, ultimately made available to their competitors as a “spillover benefit”. This understandable reluctance stifles innovation.

There is no lack of suggestions on how to square this circle.

Quoted in the Philadelphia Business Journal, Donald Drakeman, CEO of the Princeton biotech company Medarex, proposed last month to encourage pharmaceutical companies to shed technologies they have chosen to shelve: “Just like you see little companies coming out of the research being conducted at Harvard and MIT in Massachusetts and Stanford and Berkley in California, we could do it out of Johnson & Johnson and Merck.”

This would be the corporate equivalent of the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980. The statute made both academic institutions and researchers the owners of inventions or discoveries financed by government agencies. This unleashed a wave of unprecedented self-financing entrepreneurship.

In the two decades that followed, the number of patents registered to universities increased tenfold and they spun off more than 2200 firms to commercialize the fruits of research. In the process, they generated $40 billion in gross national product and created 260,000 jobs.

None of this was government financed – though, according to The Economist’s Technology Quarterly, $1 in research usually requires up to $10,000 in capital to get to market. This suggests a clear and mutually profitable division of labor – governments should picks up the tab for basic research, private capital should do the rest, stimulated by the transfer of intellectual property from state to entrepreneurs.

But this raises a host of contentious issues.

Such a scheme may condition industry to depend on the state for advances in pure science, as a kind of hidden subsidy. Research priorities are bound to be politicized and lead to massive misallocation of scarce economic resources through pork barrel politics and the imposition of “national goals”. NASA, with its “let’s put a man on the moon (before the Soviets do)” and the inane International Space Station is a sad manifestation of such dangers.

Science is the only public good that is produced by individuals rather than collectives. This inner conflict is difficult to resolve. On the one hand, why should the public purse enrich entrepreneurs? On the other hand, profit-driven investors seek temporary monopolies in the form of intellectual property rights. Why would they share this cornucopia with others, as pure scientists are compelled to do?

The partnership between basic research and applied science has always been an uneasy one. It has grown more so as monetary returns on scientific insight have soared and as capital available for commercialization multiplied. The future of science itself is at stake.

Were governments to exit the field, basic research would likely crumble. Were they to micromanage it – applied science and entrepreneurship would suffer. It is a fine balancing act and, judging by the state of both universities and startups, a precarious one as well.

Sam Vaknin is the author of Malignant Self Love – Narcissism Revisited and After the Rain – How the West Lost the East. He is a columnist for Central Europe Review, PopMatters, and eBookWeb , a United Press International (UPI) Senior Business Correspondent, and the editor of mental health and Central East Europe categories in The Open Directory Bellaonline, and Suite101 .

Ayurvedic Health Benefits

Wouldn’t the world be a boring place if we all did and liked the same things? But where do individual preferences come from? Are we born a certain way or does our childhood shape and influence who we are as an adult? So far, no one really knows why we are the way we are.

There are of course numerous theories, one of which, according to Ayurveda, an ancient health science which originated in India, is that the way we are in life is determined by our dominant ‘dosha’ which can be manipulated by the types of food we consume. Giving literal meaning to the old saying ‘You are what you eat’

So, depending on your personality and body type you will need different foods to maintain a healthy ‘dosha’ which is the name given to the internal metabolic currents which propel our bodies. Doshas need to be in kept in harmony and one can achieve this by monitoring their diet. Not only to control weight, but also mood swings and energy, which ultimately helps with preventing diseases.

The doshas are known as Kapha, Pitta and Vata are believed to be inherited by our parents and passed down through our DNA. Each person has one dominant dosha that is defined by the food we eat. If a dosha gets too strong, it can have a negative impact on sleep and happiness as well as physical and mental health.

The good news is there’s no calorie counting or carb watching. You simply eat what’s best for your dosha, which can include meat and fish. Western science has not been able to prove or disprove that the practice of ayurveda can prevent or cure diseases.

Dosha Types:

Vata: When this dosha is dominant a person can suffer with constipation, anxiety or worry as well as dry, itchy skin. According to ayurveda these problems can be addressed with heavy, warm foods such as hearty stews, butter, and tapioca pudding. Vata types should avoid spicy foods and caffeine as well as vegetables like cauliflower, raw veg and lentils.

Pitta: When this dosha is dominant people suffer with resentment, anger and digestive problems. They need to ingest foods which cool the body and the temperament, such as grains and vegetable casseroles. Avoiding spicy and sour foods such as oranges and tomatoes can help too.

Kapha: If you are a Kapha type you may be experiencing tiredness, the need to over sleep and have trouble with your weight. Try fresh fruits, vegetables and legumes as well as living in a mild climate if possible.

5 Recent Discoveries In Health Science

1. Adding Milk To Tea Blocks Its Benefits

Tea has a reputation for being a friend to your health, and rightly so. From reducing your risk of heart attack and stroke, to protecting your bones, tea’s benefits are vast. But you may want to think twice if you’re the type to add a bit of milk to your tea. New studies are showing that caseins, proteins in the milk, can actually block many of the beneficial effects. There still seems to be some benefit, but just not as much. Something to think about next time you’re deciding how to have your tea!

2. Lack of Sleep Increases Calorie Consumption

Lack of sleep has always been associated with health problems, but recent studies suggest that it could also increase your calorie consumption by as much as 500 or more calories a day! Now whether that’s caused simply by the extra time awake being used to eat, or some other factor, has yet to be determined. This is yet another reason to get a full night sleep whenever possible, although not by hitting the snooze button, which has it’s own set of consequences.

3. Folic Acid Prevents Birth Defects

First of all, what is folic acid? It’s simply a “B” Vitamin used in making new cells, and is a necessary component of, you know, staying alive. It’s even more important to have the right amount if you’re planning on getting pregnant. Starting at least a month before pregnancy, you should be taking in 400 micrograms of the stuff every day. The reward is helping to prevent birth defects of the baby’s brain and spine, two components of a newborn you generally want to keep in tact… The easiest way to take in the right amount is a multivitamin or folic acid pill. Just check the label to make sure you’re getting 100% of your daily value.

4. Keeping Your Hands Cool Makes Exercise Easier

This is definitely one of the stranger discoveries I’ve seen. The idea here is that holding something cold in your hands, such as a near frozen water bottle, sort of wicks the heat away from your body, and cools the blood as it circulates through your hands. It works to make the person more comfortable, able to exercise longer and more efficiently, and in the end, burn more calories. In the recent research being done, they’re was a significant difference when cooling the hands, even reducing a 1.5 mile run by 5 minutes! The fun thing about this one, is you can test it yourself and immediately see if you notice a difference.

5. Low Omega-3 Levels May Cause Memory Problems

Yet another reason to have fish in your rotation, which is high in Omega-3 Fatty Acids. Low levels of Omega-3 have recently been linked to memory problems, and not just short term. Alzheimer’s and Dementia have both been shown to increase when Omega-3 levels are not sufficient. And if you’re not a fish person, there are Omega-3 vitamins that can make the job easier.

Resveratrol Health Science Breakthroughs

Resveratrol has been trying to capture the attention of scientists and health care professionals for years now. It has shown its power through the medium of red wine. It has shown its ability to help the human body, and its many health benefits for a long time now, only to be ignored. Years ago when scientists dissected the red grape to try to find the source of red wines health benefits the Resveratrol was labeled as nothing more than just a toxicant and put aside. Now scientists and health care professionals have found that it is actually what makes the wine so healthy.

If you are looking for ways to increase your cardiovascular systems health, you will want to consider taking Resveratrol. You can also begin to eat less fattening foods and exercise, but by adding the Resveratrol to your daily regimen you will be helping your system much more than you would be by simply changing your diet and exercise routine. You would be providing it with a natural source that has been proven to help your health in the areas of your heart, blood vessels, and liver. It will also help in other areas of your health. Plus, keep in mind that once you improve your hearts health a domino effect will take place in your body and you will begin to notice improvements to your overall health and sense of well being.

The French have been seeing the positive health benefits of Resveratrol for years now. It has always been known that they eat very creamy foods that are known to contain high amounts of fat and they don’t have the amount of heart problems that other cultures which eat less fats have. The reason for this has been linked to the amount of red wine that they consume. Now we know that it is not the red wine which helps their health, but the Resveratrol that is in the wine.

This is why people should consider adding Resveratrol to their daily intake. When you add it into your daily diet you will be giving yourself these same health benefits that the French have been giving themselves for years now. This is a natural way to help your cardiovascular system. You should of course still try to eat right and get in daily exercise. But at least the benefits of Resveratrol will be helping your heart regardless of your dietary habits.

Natural Health Sciences

Natural health sciences have taken on a whole new dimension with the creation and expansion of the large assortment of healing arts schools and colleges available today. For example, students can invest time and tuition to achieve a Bachelor’s or Master’s Degree in Science in Nutrition. Natural health studies that are provided in these degree programs involve anatomy, physiology, whole foods, organic chemistry and biochemistry, food science, nutritional supplements and herbal medicine, physical fitness, and related natural health sciences. However, be prepared — most degree programs in these and other natural health sciences require prerequisite education from an accredited school or university; and may take up to four years to complete.

If you choose to pursue an education in herbology, there are a number of degree programs in natural health sciences that cover this field of study as well. Currently, candidates can apply to a Bachelor of Science Degree program with a major in herbal sciences, and earn a solid educational foundation to become an herbal instructor, herbalist, wellness practitioner, herbal medicine researcher, or holistic health practitioner, among others. Common natural health sciences that are offered in this course of study include herbal sciences, anatomy, pathology, pharmacology, physiology, biochemistry and organic chemistry, microbiology, Materia Medica, herbal preparation and formulas, and more.

Home herbal gardeners, don’t dismay — there are a number of holistic workshops and seminars that offer natural health sciences and studies in home herbal remedies, organic gardening, iridology, and introductory classes in supplements, vitamins, and flower essences, among others.

Some certificate and/or diploma programs in natural health sciences are also accessible. If you like working with people and enjoy the healing art of massage, there are numerous natural health programs that emphasis bodywork modalities like deep tissue massage, Swedish massage, sports massage, aromatherapy, hydrotherapy, and associated studies.

Because natural health sciences reflect the growing demand for natural health care and complementary medicine in lieu of often invasive and risky conventional health treatments, now is the perfect time to enlist your energy and talents in the ever-expanding fields of the healing arts.

If you (or someone you know) are interested in learning more about these or other programs in natural health sciences, let professional training within fast-growing industries like massage therapy, naturopathy, acupuncture, oriental medicine, Reiki, and others get you started! Explore natural health sciences [http://school.holisticjunction.com/clickcount.php?id=6634739&goto=http://www.holisticjunction.com/search.cfm] and similar studies near you.

Natural Health Sciences
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Health Sciences Career Studies

The field of health sciences is extremely broad leaving students with the choice of what type of degree they would like to earn. The field encompasses career studies that prepare students to work in health care as assistants or technicians in a specific area. Educational opportunities can be found at a variety of colleges throughout the country.

With the field being extremely diverse many students start by entering a bachelor’s degree program. This is the case because many students enter the health sciences field after they have already earned an associate’s degree in their desired field.

Fields that can be entered within a health sciences degree include:

Dental Hygiene
Nursing
Physician Assisting
Surgical Technology
Applied Health Sciences
Occupational Therapy

These fields are joined by many other specializations that can be gained through degree programs from the associate’s to the PhD level of education. The most common entered programs are at the bachelor’s and master’s degree level. Education at the bachelor’s degree level consists of courses that supplement a concentration. It is typical for students to work through courses that have them completing clinical hours to gain experience. The same basic courses are taken no matter what career students are working towards. In a four-year degree program students should expect to complete courses in microbiology, human anatomy, physiology, and health care. Some classes will also focus on the different types of delivery systems that are integrated into the field.

Working through a master’s degree program provides students with the knowledge needed to work alongside doctors and surgeons. Many of the degree programs prepare students for management by taking their specialization and providing a complete understanding of health science. Students can enter concentrations in areas including public health, health education, emergency and disaster management, clinical research administration, and more.

The core set of courses that all students can expect to take inside a master’s degree program include:

Advanced Human Anatomy
Applied Ergonomics
Bioenergetics and Weight
Pathophysiology
Pharmacology
Tissue Biomechanics
Movement Science

Students can plan to take these courses after working through a general education path in an undergraduate degree. A fundamentals course in human nutrition looks at health science in regards to nutrition. The study of digestion, diet, the effect of nutrients on the body, and the role of nutrition in health and disease makes up beginning concepts of the field. Another beginning course can be applied ethics, which looks at the techniques of care practices. Students debate from an argumentative standpoint what is moral and if techniques are based on someone’s perspective. Students can expect to be trained well for their chosen field after completing a degree in health sciences.

Definition Of Health Science

As we are fast developing in terms of technology as well as other fields of science, our language too is getting more and more specific. You must have now noticed new terminology such as ‘health science’. Do you know what this means? Well this is not a new field of science but one that has been there for long.

The term health sciences can refer to many things. Man’s health has several aspects including emotional, psychological as well as physical. Each of these has separate science streams which again comprise of sub streams and divisions when it comes to specific aspect of the human health. Health means well being. The overall wellbeing of an individual is the sum total of his physical, emotional and psychological health together with the attitude.

Take the word science. What does it mean to you? Science denotes a scientific approach to the study of the particular subject where in the principles elucidated can be tested and verified. So when we talk of health sciences, we are referring to the systematic pursuit of laws relating as well as scientific enquiry into the health of man.

Health sciences refers to the general field encompassing several and overall health of the body including its nutritional as well as fitness and functional aspects. This of course is very useful to have a holistic approach to the functioning of the body with the specialist’s opinion coming in as and when required.

Health science has innumerable branches if you start referring to it. Some of them can be dietics, physiotherapy, occupational health, audiology, speech therapy and many more.

It is not only the medical community that is concentrating on the body health and issues. Several other branches have come up and are being practiced as a part of holistic health clinics. Even corporates are seen embracing health and safety issues and employing professionals from health sciences too.

If you work up and get a PhD in Health Sciences, you can be very successful in the career be it in the hospital segment or in the private clinics and centers. You can even join a corporate and be a part of the global initiatives.

Once you have picked up and have a grasp over the subject, you can keep doing more and more research to understand the ground realities of people in different environments and come out with solutions to address health issues.

Usana Health Sciences Reviews

Usana Health Sciences was formed in 1992 by Dr. Myron Wentz who is renowned worldwide as a microbiologist and immunologist. Usana has been offering good products for the past 17 years, and have been complying with the MLM laws throughout this period. It has been in compliance with all the Direct Selling Association and FTC rules. It is also a member of the DSA. Despite these strong credentials, there is a constant stream of questions about the legitimacy of the Usana Company and the business opportunity it offers.

The Usana Health sciences Company offers products in the health and wellness industry. Usana has introduced three product lines. They are supplements called Micro Optimizers, skin care products called as Sense, and food replacements known as Macro Optimizers. The aim of the Usana health sciences Company is to provide high quality science based products which can be distributed internationally through a network of associates. Usana has spent years developing their products, and these products have been received very well by people. They are beneficial and effective products, and the company has special partnerships with scientists for help in design and content of the product. Dr. Wentz has always believed that prevention is better than cure, and his products reflect his philosophy. The long run the products have enjoyed and the positive feedback are factors providing effective proof about the legitimacy of the product.

As a network marketing company, it provides a binary plan for compensation. While this plan has created many millionaires in the past, most consultants advise against subscription to this plan. So Usana health sciences offers options to an individual which are either to buy their products as a valued customer or an opportunity for the individual to build his own business.

The binary plan is simple in nature. There are two sides to an individual’s business performance. When the sale volumes on the left hand and right hand sides match at a certain pre set volume, the individual is paid his commission. The business strategies promoted by Usana are generally outdated, and with the use of these strategies people find themselves investing more than they earn.

The Usana Company is marketing a brilliant product and has a solid compensation plan in place. It has enjoyed a stupendous run so far and has benefited tremendously because of the recession. The Usana health sciences Company is completely above board, although the interested individual advised to think and learn about the tips and strategies regarding MLM before investing precious time and money in this business venture. Other than that, Usana has a bright future ahead.

The formulation of contingency plans like the Binary plan used by the Usana Company is a type of model which is hard to emulate successfully. Randy Chambliss is however one person who can show people the finest intricacies that make these kind of plans successful and also Chambliss offers his services to people in order to create successful and lucrative compensation plans amongst various other top notch services. Another thing that Chambliss is sure to teach his prospective clients are how to be circumspect and also how to analyze and dissect the market carefully before launching any business involving networking and Multi Level Marketing.